Sunday, March 15, 2020

Quebrada Jaguay - Terminal Pleistocene Archaeology

Quebrada Jaguay - Terminal Pleistocene Archaeology Quebrada Jaguay (designated QJ-280 by its excavator) is a multi-component archaeological site, located on an  alluvial terrace within the coastal desert of southern Peru, on the north bank an ephemeral stream near the town of Caman. At the time of its earliest occupation, it was about 7-8 kilometers (4-5 miles) in from the Peruvian coast and today is about 40 meters (130 feet) above sea level. The site was a fishing community, with a Terminal Pleistocene occupation date between about 13,000 and 11,400 calendar years ago (cal BP), based on a large suite of radiocarbon dates. Terminal Pleistocene sites are known in  Andean chronology as Preceramic Period I). The site is one of about 60 sites which have been found along the coast of Peru in this region, but it is the only one containing the Jaguay Phase occupations, and it is the earliest site in the region found to date (as of 2008, Sandweiss). The closest site with the same date is Quebrada Tacahuay, some 230 km (140 miles) to the south. It, like Quebrada Jaguay, is a seasonally-occupied fishing village: and those sites and many others extending from Alaska to Chile support the Pacific Coast Migration Model for the original colonization of the Americas. Chronology Late Preceramic Period, 4000 cal BP, Manos PhaseHiatus, 4000-8000 cal BPEarly Middle Preceramic Period, 8000-10,600 cal BP, Machas PhaseEarly Preceramic Period, 11,400-13,000 cal BP, Jaguay Phase During the Jaguay phase, the site was a seasonally-occupied coastal base camp for hunter-gatherers and fishermen who targeted mostly drum fish (Sciaenae, corvina or sea bass family), wedge clams (Mesodesma donancium), and freshwater and/or marine crustaceans. The occupations apparently were confined to the late winter/early summer months; the rest of the year, the people are believed to have moved inland and hunted terrestrial animals. Based on the size of the fish, the people were net fishing: the Machas phase occupations contain a few specimens of knotted cordage. The only terrestrial animals recovered from the site were small rodents, which were not likely food for the residents. Houses during the Jaguay phase were rectangular, based on the identification of postholes, and contained hearths; the houses were reconstructed several times in the same location but slightly different positions, evidence for seasonal occupations. Food remains and abundant lithic debitage were also recovered, but there were almost no finished tools. Poorly preserved plant remains were restricted to a few prickly pear cactus (Opuntia) seeds. The vast majority of the raw material for the stone tools (lithics) were local, but Alca obsidian identified by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis had been brought from its Pucuncho basin source in the Andean highlands some 130 km (80 mi) away and 3000 m (9800 ft) higher in elevation. Machas Phase The Machas Phase occupation at the site contains neither prickly pear nor obsidian: and during this period there are many more such villages in the region. The Machas phase occupation included several bottle gourd rind fragments; and a single semi-subterranean house, about 5 m (16 ft) in diameter and built with a foundation of mud and stone. It may have been roofed with wood or other organic material; it had a central hearth. The house depression is filled with a shell midden, and the house was also built on top of another shell midden. Archaeological Discovery Quebrada Jaguay was discovered by Frà ©dà ©ric Engel in 1970, as part of his investigations into the preceramic epoch along the coastline. Engel dated charcoal from one of his test pits, which came back to a remarkable 11,800 cal bp, unheard of at the time: in 1970, any site in the Americas older than 11,200 was considered heresy. Excavations were conducted at the site by Daniel Sandweiss in the 1990s, with a team of Peruvian, Canadian and U.S archaeologists. Sources Sandweiss DH. 2008. Early Fishing Societies in Western South America. In: Silverman H, and Isbell W, editors. The Handbook of South American Archaeology: Springer New York. p 145-156. Sandweiss DH, McInnis H, Burger RL, Cano A, Ojeda B, Paredes R, Sandweiss MdC, and Glascock MD. 1998. Quebrada Jaguay: early South American maritime adaptations. Science 281(5384):1830-1832. Sandweiss DH, and Richardson JBI. 2008. Central Andean Environments. In: Silverman H, and Isbell WH, editors. The Handbook of South American Archaeology: Springer New York. p 93-104. Tanner BR. 2001. Lithic Analysis of Chipped Stone Artifacts Recovered from Quebrada Jaguay, Peru. Electronic Theses and Dissertations: University of Maine.

Friday, February 28, 2020

Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 25

Case Study - Essay Example angement where a business organization dedicates to paying health insurance premiums for their workers so that in case of any emergency arising from work activities, they are well taken catered for (Hunnicutt 2010). In planning for health care benefits in an organization, there has to be careful attention on the way the plan is created so that it caters for all workers incommensurate to the company management structures and functions of all its workers. This means that the company does not have to create health care insurance plans that lead to division among the workers. Southern California Grocery has been facing huge challenges in executing its health care pal for its staff. However, a plan to consider some ways of reducing the health insurance costs for the company can be helpful in cutting down its spending in health insurance for two sets of workers. To reduce some of these costs, first, the company should consider establishing various wellness programs. The advantage with these programs is that they influence worker’s lifestyle changes that results in reduced costs for health care. Wellness programs enable workers to participate in their healthy lifestyle; this includes education in ways of preventing certain diseases and illnesses (Dubois 2006). Wellness programs enable employees to make good choices concerning their lifestyle and how those particular lifestyle patterns affect their lives. The second activity that can reduce its health care costs is doing a health assessment; health insurance census ensures employers pay reduced costs for their employees, after an assessment of their health status. This will be an essential process since the grocery may end up harmonizing the rates of heath care insurance to all its employees. Thirdly, the grocery should consider establishing a cost sharing agreement in the payment of the health insurance costs. They grocery should recommend a certain percentage of the costs to be met with its workers, while it honors

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

The Influence of Aldo Leopold on Modern Resource Management and Essay

The Influence of Aldo Leopold on Modern Resource Management and Conservation - Essay Example They include the materials and energy that serves the needs of man in the society (McKinney, Schoch, & Yonavjak, 153). The naturally occurring materials like trees, soil, and water are all resources that are valued by man. There are those resources that can be replaced within a short duration and those that cannot be replaced within the short duration. These are referred to as renewable and non-renewable resources respectively (McKinney, Schoch, & Yonavjak, 153). Some of the non-renewable resources like coal may take thousands or millions of years to be replaced. An important point to note for the resources is that the rate at which they are consumed often exceeds the rate of renewal and posing a challenge on their scarcity. On the other hand, there are some resources that are in large supply but the problem is how to harness and use it appropriately e.g. the solar energy (McKinney, Schoch, & Yonavjak, 153). The increasing size of human population is becoming a threat to the natural resources with a possibility of overexploitation of the resources. There is, therefore, a need to provide an alternative to this excess exploitation of natural resources (McKinney, Schoch, & Yonavjak, 153). This brings in the concept of resource management. Resource management entails a controlled exploitation of the natural resources. It arises due to the fact the exploitation of natural resources has both costs and benefits. The big deal is to perform a cost-benefit analysis and develop a mechanism for proper use of the resources. Aldo Leopold was a philosopher, forester, and conservationist who played a key role in the establishment of wildlife management system in the United States. He was born towards the end of the nineteenth century and was brought up in Burlington (Austin College, para.9) He had an early interest in the natural resources and this would influence his future careers and profession. He pursued forest related careers at various institutions

Friday, January 31, 2020

Media Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Media - Research Paper Example Illustrative of this changing landscape are the 2004 presidential election campaigns. The top Democratic and Republican candidates were John Kerry and George W. Bush. Some of the key issues on which the campaigns turned included: the invasion on Iraq and generally the war on terror and defense issues, gay marriages, abortion, health, environmental issues, education, budget, trade and issues of gun control. It is on these controversial issues that voters divided between both the Republican and Democratic camps. It is mainly on media, specifically ad campaigning that opponents communicate ideas to the populace and it has proved instrumental in influencing voting patterns, voter turnout and even tipping the vote in tight races the main focus being in battleground states. The race between Bush and Kerry was so close that many issues were predicted to be likely to tip on the balance. One of these was television ad campaigns. The amount of financial resources spent was staggering. In 2004, with fifty sponsors, the Republicans having nineteen and Democrats the rest, hundreds of ads were aired up to over 670, 000 times in prime markets and on cable. Over $ 550, 000 was spent by these sources. Swift boating or shadowing can also be a function of election advertising campaigns; analogous to smear campaigns, these are attacks on an opponent’s credibility and patriotism. ... The Bush-Kerry race was a competitive one and one in which commercials were a dominant and decisive feature. The unprecedented amount spent on the 2004 election ad campaigns is one of its distinctive features. The second was that it commenced earlier than had been witnessed before, on March 4th and third was the record set by outsiders, non-candidate groups for example the SBVT, a veteran group which felt itself bound to step forward to apparently correct Kerry’s ‘exaggerated’ claims about his service in Vietnam. An anonymous source is of the view that while investigations into the effects of political ad campaigns hasn’t been proven to improve voter turnout or set the pace for the discussion of issues or other agenda they are widely agreed to affect a voter’s choice, stimulate interest in the election, help change perceptions about a candidate and generally increase knowledge on issues and policy. Candidates in election ads can acclaim defend or att ack. Research according to Gallup & Newport shows that attacks on policy rather than the character or person are more effective. There are two major ads that can prove the statistics right. Kerry's "fought for his country" ad and George Bush's "100 days" ad are perfect examples of what electoral electioneering encompasses. â€Å"Fought for his country†- John Kerry The words spoken are in normal print whereas the music is italicized and the images are in prentices. The ad opens with a three way split-screen. As the announcer begins on Kerry’s history and soft music starts in the background and piano strokes continue throughout the whole commercial. Its upbeat music that progressively increases in tempo and pitch throughout the

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Use of Satire in Voltaires Candide Essay -- Candide essays Voltaire

Successful Use of Satire in Voltaire's Candide Voltaire's Candide is the story of how one man's adventures affect his philosophy on life. Candide begins his journey full of optimism that he lives in "the best of all possible worlds," but he learns that it is naà ¯ve to say that good will eventually come of any evil.   Voltaire successfully uses satire as a means of conveying his opinions about many aspects of European society in the eighteenth century.   He criticizes religion, the evils found in every level of society, and a philosophy of optimism when faced with an intolerable world.   Candide portrays religious persecution as one of the most worst aspects of society.   Voltaire rejects the superstitious beliefs that the church endorsed.   After the great earthquake in Lisbon, the church seems to think that persecuting a few innocent civilians in an auto-da-fà ¨ will prevent another disaster.   The church should be the most civilized aspect of a society, but Candide is flogged in time to a musical procession, Pangloss is hanged, and two others are burned.   Voltaire illustrates the irony of the church as a source of violence with the warring churchmen that Candide finds in the Jesuit state in the New World.   The Spanish priests in the New World operate a government where "the Fathers have everything, the people nothing;...they wage war against the King of Spain and the King of Portugal...they kill Spaniards" (Voltaire 53).   Ironically, the priests in Paraguay also hold offices in the army.   The Baron, for example, holds the title of Reverend Father Colonel.   Voltaire stresses the irony of a official of the church that preaches "Thou shalt not kill" to be an army officer who's job is to murder.   The cruelty of Christiani... ...ught good out of evil, but because he has made his own happiness.   "'Well said,' replied Candide, 'but we must cultivate our garden'"   (Voltaire 120).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Works Cited and Consulted: Bottiglia, William. "Candide's Garden." Voltaire: A Collection of Critical Essays. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968. Durant, Will, Ariel Durant. The Story of Civilization: Part IX: The Age of Voltaire. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1965. Frautschi, R.L. Barron's Simplified Approach to Voltaire: Candide. New York: Barron's Educational Series, Inc., 1968. Lowers, James K, ed. "Cliff Notes on Voltaire's Candide". Lincoln: Cliff Notes, Inc. 1965. Richter, Peyton. Voltaire. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1980. Voltaire's Candide and the Critics. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc., 1966. Voltaire. Candide. New York: Viking Publishers, 1976.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Radioactive Isotopes

Radioactive Isotopes An isotope is one of two or more atoms with the same number of protons, and position in the periodic table, but different number of neutrons and physical properties. Isotopes have an unstable nucleus that decay suddenly by a release of nuclear electrons and radiation. This essay will be discussing one of the applications and uses of the radioactive isotopes, and it will also state one problem that radioactive isotopes can address. The radiation characteristically meet four kinds: alpha radiation, beta radiation, gamma radiation and x radiation.Alpha radiation is weighty, that includes a very-short variety element and is in fact a homeless helium nucleus. Some examples of alpha radiation are radium, radon, uranium, and thorium. Beta radiation is weightless, has short-range particles and is in fact a cast out electron; some examples of beta radiation are strontium -90, carbon-14, tritium, and sulphur-35. Gamma and x radiation are extremely incisive electromagnetic rays. One of the problems I’ll be discussing and is actually solved by radioactive isotopes is a cancer cell.Radiation therapy draws on high-energy radiation to damage on cancer cells by damaging their DNA, unfortunately it can also damage normal cells, so as a result the treatment must be circumspectly designed to reduce side effects. X rays offers huge advantages, counting the previous discovery of cancer and the opportunity of premature action, their use is linked with minute improves in cancer danger. In attendance the agreement vision is the profit of showing women over 50 years old, ignorantly prevail over the associated risks due to radiation experience.Typical effective doses from diagnostic medical exposures in the 1990s Diagnostic procedure | Typical effective does in millisieverts | Equivalent number of chest x-rays| Approximate equivalent period of natural background radiation (1)| X ray examination: -| Limbs and joints (except hip)|

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Essay about The Things They Carried Literary Analysis

Literary Analysis of The Things They Carried: Metafiction Tim O’Brien brings the characters and stories to life in The Things They Carried. He uses a writing style that brings stories to life by posing questions between the relationship of reality and fiction (Calloway 249). This is called metafiction and it exposes the truth through the literary experience. Tim O’Brien uses metafiction to make the characters and stories in The Things They Carried realistically evocative of the Vietnam War. Metafiction is found early in the novel, The Things They Carried. Tim O’Brien, the protagonist of the novel, has many similarities to the author of The Things They Carried. The author and the protagonist both share the same†¦show more content†¦Also, Mitchell Sanders says some of his story is fiction, Last night, man, I had to make up a few things. . . The glee club. There wasnt any glee club. . . No opera,...But, its still true (O’Brien 83-84). The characters in The Things They Carried use metafiction for the same reason Tim O’Brien does, it creates realistic feelings and sensations about what truly happened. Rat Kiley is able to get his message and the truth across while telling lies because he creates the sensation of what happened. This is the same with Mitchell Sanders, the story is exaggerated but the feelings are true. Characters in The Things They Carried use metafiction to get the real truth about what happened during the Vietnam War. In the chapter â€Å"Good Form,† Tim O’Brien explains the difference between the â€Å"story truth† and the â€Å"happening truth,† (O’Brien 179) The â€Å"happening truth† is a historically accurate summary and told without feeling, while the â€Å"story truth† is told with details and is a dramatization. The â€Å"happening truth† tells while the â€Å"story truth† shows. 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